Checklist of Mangrove species of South East India and Sri Lanka

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Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. - COMBRETACEAE - Dicotyledon

Common name in Tamil : Tipparathai
Common name in Telugu : Thanduga, kadavi, kadivi, than
Common name in Singhalese : Bariya, beriya

Habit - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Habit - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Stems - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Stems and flowers - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Leaf - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Stems and flowers - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Flowers - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Flowers - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Non mature Fruit - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Roots - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Roots - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Pneumatophores - © Pierre GRARD - IFP Botanical line drawing - © Rapinat Herbarium - Trichy

Diagnostic characters Botany & morphology Regeneration Reproductive biology Ecology Distribution Uses

Diagnostic characters :

Evergreen trees. Leaves spirally arranged. Flowers in short terminal spikes; fruits 1-seeded pseudocarp.

Botany & morphology :

Leaves crowded at branch endings, simple, alternate, sub - sessile, oblong or oblanceolate - obovate, apex emarginate, base cuneate, entire, 4 - 8 x 1.5 - 3.5 cm, glabrous, mid-nerve prominent below.

Inflorescence axillary spikes.

Flowers small, white, bisexual, sessile, regular, 7 – 8 mm long; calyx 5 lobed; petals 5, free; stamens 10, in 2 series; ovary 4-5 carpillary, stigma simple.

Fruit 1-seeded, drupe, compressed, elliptic - oblong, woody with persistent calyx - lobes, apex pointed.

Pneumatophores sometimes developed as looping lateral roots.

Tree architecture shows Attim’s model.

Regeneration :

Hypogeal germination.

Reproductive biology :

Pollination by day-active wasps, bees, butterflies and moths.

Ecology :

Common in mangrove swamps, muddy or sandy elevated fringe areas in estuarine and backwater mangroves. Often found associated with Ceriops and Avicennia.

Distribution :

Tropical E. Africa to N. Australia and Polynesia through India, in south western part of Sri Lanka, and S.E. Asia. In India, along the coasts from Sunderbans downwards and up to Maharashtra, and in the tidal forests of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Uses :

Used as fuel and also occasionally as poles for construction of buildings.

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